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MM Novato FAQ

Bed bugs are notoriously hard to spot. Many victims have a hard time confirming whether or not they have a bed bug infestation. Bed bug bites don’t always leave marks, and when they do the marks are often mixed up with spider bites or skin rashes. But if there’s one thing that’s certain, it’s that […]

Bed Bug Feces: Everything You Didn’t Want to Know

Bed bugs are notoriously hard to spot. Many victims have a hard time confirming whether or not they have a bed bug infestation. Bed bug bites don’t always leave marks, and when they do the marks are often mixed up with spider bites or skin rashes. But if there’s one thing that’s certain, it’s that everybody poops — even bed bugs.

Bed bugs live, grow, and reproduce by feeding on mammal blood. Each bug feeds every 5-10 days, biting multiple times and using an anesthetic in their saliva to numb the pain. Some times, bed bugs begin dropping feces from earlier blood meals just after they’ve finished feeding. Bed bug feces are left behind as the bug flees for a nearby hiding place.

If you find a dark spot or streak on your bedding, you might be worried that it’s from a bed bug. You may also be concerned that the feces left on your bed can get you sick. But how can you be sure that you’ve found bed bug feces? And what are the feces doing for your health? Let’s dig in and learn what we need to know… even though we don’t want to know.

Identifying Bed Bug Feces

One of the most reliable ways to confirm a bed bug infestation is to find and possitively identify bed bug feces. But since the fecal matter can look similar to other types of markings, it’s important that you be sure of what you found.

Bed bugs leave their feces everywhere, from pillowcases and sheets to sofa cushions, baseboards, and outlets. Bed bug poop is made up of digested blood. When wet, it’s still dark red like blood would be. When it dries, the mark turns into a very dark rust shade, and will usually appear black in most lighting.

Like many animals, bed bugs poop while they walk. It’s gross, but it’s efficient when you’re constantly on the move in the wild. Since bed bugs walk with their bodies flat and close to the ground, their droppings tend to drag along their tail on release. This results in bed bug feces looking more like thin, black streaks rather than what we would consider characteristic of poop.

Not sure if that black smudge, spot, or streak is from a bed bug or not? A reliable way to confirm that a mark is made of bed bug fecal matter is to dab it with a wet cloth or paper towel. Bed bug feces will smudge when wiped, and the previously black mark will stain red when wet. While the red color may not appear on the surface that the fecal matter was found on, it should show up on the damp cloth that you used.

Can Bed Bug Feces Impact Your Health?

A common concern when finding bed bug feces is wondering what effects it might be having on your health. While the exact health impact of a bed bug’s fecal matter is still uncertain, recent studies have pinned down certain chemicals in the feces, and it’s not all rosey:

Bed bug feces contain histamine, a component of their aggregation pheromone. Histamine is released from bed bug fecal matter along with the pheromones released when bed bugs are congregating. This is where the “sweet” odor comes from in a heavily infested area.

While humans naturally release histamine in response to an allergic reaction, it can ironically trigger allergy symptoms when we come in contact with it in our environment. People exposed to histamine may experience itching or asthma symptoms.

A study published in 2018 found that dust collected from homes with prior bed bug infestations had much higher histamine levels than dust from bed bug-free households. Long after the bugs are gone, the histamine released from their poop lingers in a home. It’s possible that the remaining histamine can still trigger symptoms in the same way that other exposures to histamine can.

Fecal Stains During Bed Bug Treatments

Inspecting for bed bug feces plays a critical role before, during, and after your bed bug treatment. Now that you know what bed bug feces looks like, it’s important to integrate it into your treatment routine.

First, bed bug droppings are a key way of identifying bed bug activity. Since droppings are released after bed bugs feed, and are left in the path of their escape from a host, you’ll find them near where they were feeding as well as where they went to hide afterwards. A positive identification of bed bug feces can also help confirm if you have a bed bug infestation if you weren’t sure yet.

An important part of your bed bug treatment, and one we focus heavily with our 4-step solution, is treating and isolating where you sleep to prevent feeding. Bed bugs need to feed in order to mature and reproduce, so cutting off this cycle is essential to getting rid of bed bugs for good. With that in mind, you’ll need to keep an eye out for new bed bug feces after you’ve treated, encased, and isolated your bed.

If you do find new fecal streaks even after isolating your bed, it’s a sign that bed bugs have been feeding despite your efforts to prevent their access to a meal. This means that the bugs can continue to develop and lay eggs once they’re sexually mature, so it’s important to address how they’re still able to feed. Go over every potential access point, such as any part of the bed still touching the walls, floor, or other nearby furniture. Check that ClimbUp Interceptors are installed properly under every leg of the bed, and that encasements are securely enclosed around the mattress and box spring. As long as the bed is fully treated, encased, and isolated, there shouldn’t be any more poop popping up.

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All About Beauveria Bassiana: Can This Spray-On Fungus Kill Bed Bugs?

Beauveria bassiana on a bed bug
A bed bug killed by Beauveria bassiana. Source: Penn State University

Bed bugs have been feeding on our blood since ancient times, ever since their early ancestors left the caves along with primitive humans. But bed bugs have only been a daily threat in North America for the last 10 years or so. To make matters worse, these new strains of bed bugs are resistant to previous treatment methods.

This resurgence has triggered a race to find new methods of controlling bed bugs. While there are now several effective contact and residual insecticides, there hasn’t been a successful non-chemical solution yet. The researchers looking into Beauveria bassiana are hoping to change that.

Beauveria bassiana is a fungus that infects certain insect pests. It’s normally used to treat agricultural crop pests but is showing promise as a nontoxic bed bug killer. The question is: if approved for indoor use, can this spray-on fungus be an effective bed bug treatment solution?

History of Natural Bed Bug Treatments

Bed bugs have been described in writing for thousands of years, and the science surrounding them has been bizarre for most of that time. Some of the earliest written references of bed bugs included medicinal properties for treating snake bites, ear infections, and hysteria.

One of the earliest ways people attempted to treat bed bugs in their home was to lay bean leaves under their beds. These leaves have tiny barbs that pierced the bug’s shell. It worked fairly well, considering the lack of other options available at the time. Other remedies included bowls of oil, fumigation by burning decayed leaves, and plant ash applied much like diatomaceous earth powder is today.

While their presence in human society has been constant over the ages, bed bugs grew especially common in Western homes with the advent of electricity. With year-round heating available, bed bugs were suddenly able to survive even the harshest winters indoors. This caused their numbers to multiply drastically, prompting scientists to take drastic measures.

Shortly after World War II, DDT became the insecticide of choice to get rid of bed bugs. Thanks to its powerful organophosphate properties, DDT nearly wiped out the bed bug population in Western nations for the rest of the 20th century. However, it wasn’t 100% effective, and bed bugs that were exposed to it and survived sometimes mutated to develop resistances over generations.

Today’s bed bugs are resistant to DDT and many pyrethroids that were developed after DDT was banned in Western countries. To combat this, insecticide manufacturers have developed newer pyrethroid compounds and fast-acting synthetic killers. On the natural side of the industry, developments like pyrethrin, diatomaceous earth, and even alcohol-based solutions have shown promise, but nothing is 100% effective for an entire infestation.

How Beauveria Bassiana is Different

In 2012, some researchers turned their attention to a biopesticide called Beauveria bassiana. This is an entomopathogenic fungus, which is a fancy way of describing a fungal parasite that can kill insects. Beauveria bassiana is capable of infecting a broad range of insect hosts, and as such has seen success as an agricultural biopesticide. But until a few years ago, there had been no published research on how Beauveria bassiana could be used against bed bugs.

Beauveria bassiana acts on contact: when the fungal spores land on the cuticle (the skin-like shell) of a bed bug, they geminate and grow inside their new host. Once rooted inside, the fungus spreads and produces toxins while draining the host of nutrients until it dies. Once the host is dead, the fungus makes its way back out to the cuticle and covers the host’s body with white mold that releases millions of new spores. Those new spores will then travel through the atmosphere until they reach other bed bugs, repeating the process.

After 10 days of exposure, all bed bugs exposed to Beauveria bassiana were killed while the control group had survived. Source: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Preliminary research has shown that Beauveria bassiana is 100% effective in a contained laboratory setting. Within just 10 days of exposure, bed bugs of all life stages had succumbed to the parasite. This naturally occurring fungus has typically been researched for control of soil-borne pests like aphids and beetles, but is safe for exposure to humans and most other non-insect animals.

Beauveria Bassiana in a Bed Bug Treatment

Bed bugs infected with Beauveria bassiana
Bed bugs infected with Beauveria bassiana. Source: Inside Science

Because it hasn’t been approved for residential use, it’s too soon to say if (and how) Beauveria bassiana can be integrated into a home bed bug treatment. While it’s widely labeled for agricultural use, use on bed bugs has mostly been limited to the previously discussed lab testing.

Should it be approved and offered for use by homeowners and rental property managers, Beauveria bassiana could be a promising improvement in natural bed bug treatments. Where other non-chemical treatment methods fall short, especially in residual efficacy, Beauveria bassiana shows to be a reliable residual solution that can kill any bed bug that becomes exposed to it.

However, Beauveria bassiana will never be a “silver bullet” in bed bug treatments. While it may someday prove to be more effective than a residual spray or powder that’s applied in the same spaces, no single product is likely to replace a complete, holistic treatment solution.

To reliably get rid of bed bugs, it will always be critical to combine chemical and non-chemical solutions, both for contact killing and residual control. You’ll also still need products like SafeRest encasements and ClimbUp Interceptors to ensure that bed bugs can’t reach you in your bed to feed and reproduce. To learn how to use the best modern products in a combined treatment, check out our proven 4-step solution.

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MM Novato Reviews

Dry vapor steamers are essential tools in a professional bed bug treatment. By delivering 180-degree steam vapor on contact, these machines are capable of killing bed bugs of all ages instantly. They can even penetrate into soft materials like mattresses, baseboards and upholstered furniture to kill bed bugs hiding out of reach. Pest management professionals […]

The Armato 9000 Bed Bug Steamer, Refined and Upgraded for 2019

Armato 9000 Steamer

Dry vapor steamers are essential tools in a professional bed bug treatment. By delivering 180-degree steam vapor on contact, these machines are capable of killing bed bugs of all ages instantly. They can even penetrate into soft materials like mattresses, baseboards and upholstered furniture to kill bed bugs hiding out of reach.

Pest management professionals are increasingly recognizing the utility of steamers and are investing in commercial-grade units for everyday use. However, choosing a commercial-grade steamer has been an act of compromise: you have to spend a lot of money to get the power and capacity you need, and the price is inflated by included accessories that are meant for cleaning rather than killing bed bugs with steam.

In 2015, the Armato 9000 hit the market as the first continuous-flow steamer designed specifically for bed bug control. It packed a powerful boiler, integrated heating element and super high-capacity tank into an all-metal, heavy-duty body. It even includes high-end features like continuous fill and CEME® solenoid control for an affordable price. Now the Armato has been beefed up and polished for 2019. Let’s dive in and see what’s new:

What makes the Armato 9000 hot

Armato 9000 Steamer

For most bed bug steamers out there, the operation and treatment process feels roughly the same: The operator fills the tank and turns the machine on, waiting while the water comes to a boil. They then steam various surfaces, cracks, and crevices until the tank empties. Once the refill light comes on, the operator has to turn off the machine and wait for the pressure to drop before they can refill and reheat the tank.

Recently, commercial steamers have begun offering continuous fill designs. These combine a pressurized boiler with an unpressurized water reservoir. The technology allows the user to add more water to the reservoir without stopping and waiting to reheat the tank. This reduces the time spent on a steam treatment, which means pest professionals can sooner move on to other steps or other calls.

The Armato 9000 offers continuous fill like other commercial steamers, but what truly sets it apart is how big those dual tanks are. The pressurized boiler tank holds up to one gallon of water, making it easily the largest in its class. Coupled with the polymer reservoir tank’s 1.1 gallon capacity, the Armato 9000 can safely outlast any other bed bug steamer on the market.

Tank capacity is only one feature to consider. More water just means more time to steam between refills, which is meaningless if the steam itself isn’t lethal enough. Fortunately, the Armato is up to the task, with a class-leading heating element capable of maintaining a consistent 320-degree boil.

This super hot boiler can produce tip temperatures of up to 284 degrees Fahrenheit, which is more than enough to kill bed bugs of any age on contact. Coupled with the 90-PSI steam pressure rating, the Armato 9000 should have no trouble killing bed bugs and their eggs hiding even several inches from the steam gun’s tip.

Improvements under the hood

Armato 9000 Steamer

Armato wasn’t satisfied with staying at the head of the pack using their existing components. For 2019, the Armato 9000 has been beefed up with new internals to push the envelope even further for professional bed bug steamers:

The first upgrade was a new 1,900-watt external heater. This holds the highest power rating for a household 120-volt circuit, opening the door to a powerful boiler heating element. By drawing more power to heat the boiler, the Armato 9000 can maintain its lethal steam pressure with fewer drops during use. It can also recover from pressure declines faster than other steamers with similar boiler sizes.

Along with adding horsepower to the heating element, the upgraded Armato also has a much larger boiler tank. At 4.0 liters, the new tank is easily the largest boiler in its class, and pushes the steamer’s overall water capacity to levels unheard of among commercial bed bug steamers. With over 2 gallons of overall capacity, it’s now possible to steam continuously for over 3 hours without refilling. And thanks to the continuous fill technology, you can always pause to top off the unpressurized tank and steam for even longer.

More power, more capacity

Armato 9000 Steamer

Just a few short years ago, pest management professionals had a tough choice to make: they either needed to drop over $2,000 on an early continuous-fill steamer or compromise on a consumer-grade but affordable model. When time is literally money, having to choose between capacity, power, and price is painful. Now, there are more options than ever among commercial-grade steam cleaners that are proven bed bug killers, but still only one commercial steamer that is designed and sold specifically for use against bed bugs: the Armato 9000.

The Armato has been Bed Bug Supply’s top-selling commercial steamer since it first hit the market in 2015. Now, the revamped 2019 model ensures that the best bed bug steamer today will remain the top dog going forward. If you’re looking for a durable, reliable, powerful bed bug steamer that won’t quit working before you do, look no further.

Armato 9000 Commercial Bed Bug Steamer

Arm yourself with the most powerful dry vapor steamer available! The Armato’s incredible 90 PSI steam output is unmatched in its class, providing consistent penetration into any soft materials.
Our Price: $999.95
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MM Novato FAQ

At least 1 in 5 Americans have suffered from bed bug infestations. If you’re one of them and have recently finished a bed bug treatment, you may be worried that you didn’t quite get them all. Maybe you’ve gone some time without seeing any new bugs or bites, but you want a way to be […]

FAQ: How to Know When Bed Bugs Are Gone

At least 1 in 5 Americans have suffered from bed bug infestations. If you’re one of them and have recently finished a bed bug treatment, you may be worried that you didn’t quite get them all. Maybe you’ve gone some time without seeing any new bugs or bites, but you want a way to be sure that the coast is clear. Whatever the situation, the question is the same: how do you know when all the bed bugs are gone?

Good News and Bad News

First, the bad news: unfortunately, there’s no way to confirm without any doubt that all bed bugs in an area have been eradicated. While you can take careful steps through the whole process and come to a reasonable conclusion at the end, there’s no way to be 100% sure. Bed bugs are notoriously good at hiding, hibernating, and waiting, even for weeks at a time or longer.

Now for the good news: being “sure enough” is easy to do if you followed our 4-step treatment process. Not only is this a thorough, methodical treatment solution, but it includes the tools to monitor the bed bug population over time. Steps 1 and 2 of the solution involve isolating your bed and applying ClimbUp Interceptors, which are industry-standard bed bug monitors. With those Interceptors in place, you’ll be able to monitor for bed bugs during the treatment and long after.

Monitoring the Population During Treatment

As you progress through a bed bug treatment, you need a way to measure your progress and see if bed bugs are still active in the area that you’re treating. The best way to accomplish this is by monitoring the population directly to try and gauge how it changes over time.

If you’re treating for bed bugs in a room where you and/or someone else sleeps, the best way to monitor for bed bugs is with a passive monitor and trap, like ClimbUp Interceptors. When an interceptor is placed under each leg of the bed, they will trap bed bugs that try to enter or exit the bed. Inspect these traps regularly to see if bed bugs are still active in the room. Ideally, the number of bed bugs being captured will decline over time, eventually reaching a consistent zero.

If you’ve been treating an unoccupied room, like a living room or a vacated bedroom, monitoring the bed bug population becomes a bit more complicated. ClimbUp Interceptors won’t do you much good in this situation, since there isn’t a human body acting as a lure to draw the bed bugs to the interceptors. Instead, you’ll want to use an active monitor like the NightWatch. These have a lure of their own, so they can attract bed bugs without anyone present.

The 6-8 Week Timeline

Figuring out when to call the coast clear requires that you know how long bed bugs will be able to survive without feeding. Unfortunately, there is a lot of misinformation on the web about how often bed bugs feed and how long they can live without a meal. That makes figuring out your post-treatment timeline harder. Let’s review the actual timing on bed bug feeding and how long they can live without a meal:

Most bed bugs live for two to six months, though some can live for over a year without food by hibernating. Pregnant females lay three to five eggs per day, totaling up to 500 in her short lifetime. Those eggs hatch within two weeks, and the newborn nymphs will be hungry for a blood meal right away.

Since eggs will hatch about two weeks apart, that’s a good time period to space apart treatment applications. Remember that almost no bed bug treatment is 100% successful on the first attempt — you’ll need to at least repeat the contact and residual spray applications to finish off the infestation. Wait two weeks after the first treatment to reapply the sprays, then repeat that in another two weeks. These follow-up treatments will hit any newly hatched bed bugs as well as adults that you may have missed before.

Once those follow-up treatments are done, you’ll know fairly quickly how effective your treatment was. Bed bugs want to eat every 5 to 10 days, so any hungry survivors should start appearing in your traps around two weeks after your last follow-up treatment. If the traps go about 6 to 8 weeks without any signs of bed bugs, you can probably call yourself bed bug free.

How to Confirm Bed Bugs are Gone

By now, we’ve covered the tools we need to monitor the bed bug population, as well as a rough timeline we need to monitor before giving the all-clear. Let’s review what an effective treatment and post-routine treatment looks like in order to be confident that the bed bugs are gone for good:

First, you need to completely treat the bed, ensuring that no bed bugs are on it and that they can’t get back in/on it. Begin by stripping the bedding and washing them on high heat, then drying on high heat if the beddings’ tags allow for it. While the laundry cycles are running, use a vacuum cleaner to remove any bed bugs and eggs that might be along the seams of your mattress, box spring, pillows, and bed frame.

Follow up the vacuuming with a high pressure steamer to penetrate deep inside those same nooks and crannies to kill bed bugs and eggs on contact. Lastly, spray down the joints of the bed frame, headboard, and footboard with contact and residual bed bug sprays that are labeled for use on the bed, and encase the mattress and box spring with sealed bed bug encasements once the bed is dry. Be sure to leave those encasements on for at least 18 months to ensure that any bed bugs that managed to survive stay trapped inside until they starve.

Next, you’ll need to isolate the bed to make sure bed bugs elsewhere in the room can’t get onto the bed and feed. Move the bed away from the walls and any nightstands or other furniture. Tuck in or remove any hanging skirts or sheets, and remove any storage under the bed that is touching any part of the frame. The only thing your bed should be touching is the floor via its legs. If you don’t have a bed frame with legs, you should purchase one to sleep in, at least until you are bed bug free.

To complete the isolation, place ClimbUp Interceptors under each leg of the bed. These traps will prevent bed bugs from climbing up your bed legs, stopping them from reaching you in your bed. As bed bugs attempt to get to you, they will climb up the edge of the interceptor and fall into the perimeter pitfall where they can’t escape. With the ClimbUps in place, you can monitor the population of bed bugs in the room over the next several weeks (and even longer to avoid future infestations).

As you proceed through the rest of our 4-step treatment solution, including the follow-up treatments over the next four weeks, that isolated and intercepted bed will act as a long-term monitoring system. Once both follow-up treatments are done, continue checking the ClimbUps daily for bed bugs. If the occupants of the room go at least 6 to 8 weeks without any new bite marks, and without any sightings in the interceptors, you can fairly safely declare that room bed bug free!

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MM Novato FAQ

Bed bugs are hard to kill. Have you ever sprayed a can of pesticide on a bed bug only to see it crawl away unaffected? Millions of people have experienced the same feeling of helplessness after seeing that. What is it about bed bugs that makes them so impervious to certain pesticides? Let’s take a […]

FAQ: How Bed Bugs Resist Chemicals

How bed bugs resist chemicalsBed bugs are hard to kill. Have you ever sprayed a can of pesticide on a bed bug only to see it crawl away unaffected? Millions of people have experienced the same feeling of helplessness after seeing that. What is it about bed bugs that makes them so impervious to certain pesticides? Let’s take a closer look and dig into how bed bugs resist chemicals.

The Rise and Fall of DDT

The timeline of bed bug resistance starts almost a century ago. During and after World War II, DDT became the insecticide of choice to deal with bed bug infestations. DDT was a powerful organophosphate that proved lethal to bed bugs of all ages and strains for many years. It’s credited with the near eradication of bed bugs in North America and most of Europe for decades.

Despite its infamous potency, not every bed bug exposed to DDT succumbed to it. Bed bugs have a short lifespan and can start breeding only weeks after birth. This allows them to mutate in an attempt to survive environmental changes. Some bed bugs that encountered DDT had mutations that allowed them to resist its toxins.

DDT likely wiped out all but the most resistant strains of bed bugs. The survivors were the ones that mutated and can completely resist chemicals like DDT. Their offspring then thrived with those powerful resistant properties intact.

After the US banned DDT use in the 1970s, the pest control industry moved on to weaker alternatives. By then, bed bugs had the genetic tools in place to build resistance to almost any synthetic insecticide they ran into. Modern bed bugs can secrete chemicals that digest poisons on their shell, rendering them harmless. They can even flush toxins from their internal organs using sophisticated biological pumps.

The New Bed Bug Resistance Toolbox

After decades of absence, bed bugs returned to the US in force over the last few years. It’s believed that all these modern bed bugs are completely resistant to DDT. The majority of active strains are also showing resistance to many modern pyrethroids. These insecticides had gained mainstream popularity in recent years, but we’ll need to address these new bed bugs in new ways.

The first key to dealing with the modern bed bug epidemic is understanding how bed bugs resist chemicals. That way, we can know how to wipe them out again. Researchers from Washington State University and the University of Kentucky stepped up to the plate. They conducted a four-year study that identified 14 unique bed bug genes. These genes appear to work to repel pyrethroids in common use today.

“Every living thing on Earth has a unique set of strategies to adapt to life-threatening situations in the environment,” said Zhu, the leader of the study. “The surprise discovery we never expected is that most of the genes responsible for the pesticide resistance in the bed bug are active in its outer skin-like shell or cuticle. This is the unique adaptation that has not been discovered in cockroaches, termites, ants, or other insects.”

The study’s co-author, University of Kentucky’s Subba Palli, believes that the solution lies in using RNA to interfere with these unique genetic functions. In laboratory settings, RNA strands can be injected directly into a bed bug. But this isn’t as simple a task with wild populations. We would need to develop a technology that can inject the RNA strands in a less direct way. Another option would be to alter a bed bug’s existing RNA to perform the same interference. “If someone solves that, I think we could have a really good product,” said Palli.

In the field, pest controllers are seeing pyrethroid resistance develop during treatments. When exposed to a single insecticide, infestations can begin showing resistance in just a couple of generations. Since bed bugs can hatch and mature in just three weeks, the timeline for resistance to show is very short.

Avoiding Bed Bug Resistance During Treatment

When addressing how bed bugs resist chemicals, there are two forms of resistance you’ll need to consider for your home treatment. The first is evolutionary resistance, which developed over decades. This long-term change has made certain chemicals ineffective for practical treatment. The other concern is short-term mutations, which can impact your follow-up treatments.

The first step is to make sure you’re not relying on a single chemical product to treat your home for bed bugs. Not only is it likely that the bed bugs in your home will resist chemicals they’re exposed to repeatedly, but it’s incredibly unlikely that you would be successful either way. Modern bed bug treatment strategies, like our 4-step solution, combine both chemical and non-chemical methods of attack. It’s also recommended that you use multiple contact and residual sprays to ensure that the infestation can’t mutate to resist chemicals they’ve been exposed to.

Just a few years ago, there was a wide range of chemical compounds on the market that were proven to kill bed bugs, either on contact or over time. Over the years, bed bug strains have developed resistances to many of these compounds, and those products are no longer as effective. To cut their losses in the development of these compounds, the manufacturers started selling to hardware stores and supermarkets at a discounted price.

Since these off-the-shelf sprays may not be able to curb your bed bug population, don’t use them! Instead, opt for newer contact and residual sprays that are effective against all strains of bed bugs. They may cost a bit more, but you will have peace of mind knowing that what you are applying is doing the job. We only carry the newest products with no known bed bug resistance.

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